Evidence Based Practice

IV Infusion Therapy — Evidence Based Practice

IntraVenous Solutions follows an evidenced-based practice model. We want our clients to be informed in the decisions they are making.

Check out our readily available references below.

1.Simon JA, Hudes ES. Relation of serum ascorbic acid to serum lipids and lipoproteins in US adults. J Amer Clin Nutr 1998;17:250-5.

2.Simon JA, Hudes E, Tice JA. Relation of serum ascorbic acid to mortality among US adults. Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:255-63.

3.Simon JA, Hudes ES. Relation of serum ascorbic acid to serum lipids and lipoproteins in US adults. J Amer Clin Nutr 1998;17:250-5.

4.Osganian SK, Stampfer MJ, Rimm E, et al. Vitamin C and risk of coronary heart disease in women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:246-52.

5.Cunningham JJ. The glucose/insulin system and vitamin C: implications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:105-8.

6.Yokoyama T, Chigusa D, Kokubo Y, et al. Serum vitamin C concentration was inversely associated with subsequent 20-year incidence of stroke in Japanese a rural community. The Shibata study. Stroke 2000;31:2287-94.

7.Carr A, Zhu BZ, Frei B. Potential antiatherogenic mechanism of ascorbate (vitamin C) and a-tocopherol (vitamin E). Circ Res 2000;87:349-54.

8.Jialal I, Fuller CJ. Effect of vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene on LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis. Can J Cardiol 1995;11SupplG:97-103.

9.Hodis HN, Mack WJ, LaBree L, et al. Serial coronary angiographic evidence that antioxidant vitamin intake reduces progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. JAMA 1995;273:1849-54.

10.Leveille SG, LaCroix AZ, Koepsell TD, et al. Dietary vitamin C and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Washington State, USA. J Epidemiol Community Health 1997;51:479-85.

11.Zandi PP, Anthony JC, Khachaturian AS, et al. Reduced risk of alzheimer disease in user of antioxidant vitamin supplements. Arch Neurol 2004;61:82-8.

12.Jacques PF, Taylor A, Hankinson SE, et al. Long term vitamin C supplement use and prevalence of early age-related lens opacities. Amer J Clin Nutr 1997;66:911-6.

13.Padayatty SJ, Sun H, Wang Y, et al. Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use. Ann Intern Med 2004;140:533-7.

14.Rossig L, Hoffmann J, Hugel B, et al. Vitamin C inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis in congestive heart failure. Circulation 2001;104:2182-7.

15.Tanaka H, Matsuda T, Miyagantani Y, et al. Reduction of resuscitation fluid volumes in severely burned patients using ascorbic acid administration. Arch Surg 2000;135:326-31.

16.Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes – Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids and the Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. 2000.The National Academy of Sciences Press, Washington DC.

17.Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes – Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids and the Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. 2000.The National Academy of Sciences Press, Washington DC.

18.Cenolate® (ascorbic acid, vitamin C injection) package insert. North Chicago, IL: Abbott Laboratories; 2002 Sept.

19.Desferal® (deferoxamine mesylate for injection USP) package insert. East Hanover, NJ: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; 2002 Oct.

20.Sestili MA: Possible adverse health effects of vitamin C and ascorbic acid. Semin Oncol. 1983;10:299.

21.Campbell GD, Steinberg MH, Bower JD. Ascorbic acid-induced hemolysis in G-6-PD deficiency. Ann Int Med 1975;82(6):810. Letter.

22.Hays GL, Bullock Q, Lazzari EP, Puente ES. Salivary pH while dissolving vitamin C-containing tablets. Am J Dent. 1992;5:269-271.

1.D. Kennedy, “B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review,” Nutrients, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 68, Jan. 2016.

2.J. Zhang, Z. Xie, N. Zhang, and J. Zhong, “Nanosuspension drug delivery system: preparation, characterization, postproduction processing, dosage form, and application,” in Nanostructures for Drug Delivery, Elsevier, 2017, pp. 413–443.

3.K. Mikkelsen and V. Apostolopoulos, “Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, and B6 and the Immune System,” in Nutrition and Immunity, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019, pp. 115–125.

4.M. S. Morris, “The Role of B Vitamins in Preventing and Treating Cognitive Impairment and Decline,” Adv. Nutr., vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 801–812, Nov. 2012.

5.M. S. Morris, M. F. Picciano, P. F. Jacques, and J. Selhub, “Plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate in the US population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2004,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 1446–1454, May 2008.

6.C. A. Calderón Ospina and M. O. Nava Mesa, “B Vitamins in the nervous system: Current knowledge of the biochemical modes of action and synergies of thiamine, pyridoxine, and cobalamin,” CNS Neurosci. Ther., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 5–13, Jan. 2020.

7.J. C. Kerns, C. Arundel, and L. S. Chawla, “Thiamin Deficiency in People with Obesity,” Adv. Nutr., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 147–153, Mar. 2015.

8.D. Barton, K. Nakanishi, and O. Meth-Cohn, Eds., Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry. Elsevier Science Ltd., 1999.

9.N. S. Ross and T. P. Hansen, “Riboflavin deficiency is associated with selective preservation of critical flavoenzyme-dependent metabolic pathways.,” Biofactors, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 185–90, Jan. 1992.

10.M. Ashoori and A. Saedisomeolia, “Riboflavin (vitamin B 2 ) and oxidative stress: a review,” Br. J. Nutr., vol. 111, no. 11, pp. 1985–1991, Jun. 2014.

11.C. J. García-Minguillán et al., “Riboflavin status modifies the effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) polymorphisms on homocysteine,” Genes Nutr., vol. 9, no. 6, p. 435, Nov. 2014.

12.G. Wolf, “Handbook of Vitamins , 4th ed, edited by Janos Zempleni, Robert B Rucker, Donald B McCormick, and John W Suttie, 2007, 593 pages, hardcover, $107.96. CRC Press, New York,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 1708–1708, Dec. 2008.

13.G. Litwack, Human Biochemistry. Elsevier, 2018.

14.J. Selhub, “Folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 and one carbon metabolism.,” J. Nutr. Health Aging, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 39–42, 2002.

15.L. Sakakeeny et al., “Plasma Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate Is Inversely Associated with Systemic Markers of Inflammation in a Population of U.S. Adults,” J. Nutr., vol. 142, no. 7, pp. 1280–1285, Jul. 2012.

16.W. Weber and H. Kewitz, “Determination of thiamine in human plasma and its pharmacokinetics,” Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 213–219, 1985.

17.M. J. Royer-Morrot, A. Zhiri, F. Paille, and R. J. Royer, “Plasma thiamine concentrations after intramuscular and oral multiple dosage regimens in healthy men,” Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 219–222, Feb. 1992.

18.K. J. Breen, R. Buttigieg, S. Iossifidis, C. Lourensz, and B. Wood, “Jejunal uptake of thiamin hydrochloride in man: influence of alcoholism and alcohol,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 121–126, Jul. 1985.

19.J. Zempleni, J. R. Galloway, and D. B. McCormick, “Pharmacokinetics of orally and intravenously administered riboflavin in healthy humans,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 54–66, Jan. 1996.

20.J. Kirkland, “Niacin Status, NAD Distribution and ADP-Ribose Metabolism,” Curr. Pharm. Des., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 3–11, Jan. 2009.

21.M. Sachs, F. Asskali, C. Lanaras, H. Förster, and H. Bockhorn, “Untersuchungen über den Metabolismus von Panthenol bei Patienten mit postoperativer Darmatonie,” Z. Ernahrungswiss., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 270–283, Dec. 1990.

22.G. Andermann and M. Dietz, “The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of three zinc salts: Zinc pantothenate, zinc sulfate and zinc orotate,” Eur. J. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 233–239, Jul. 1982.

23.V. A. Gurinovich and A. G. Moiseenok, “[Metabolism of pantothenic acid and its derivatives in animals deficient in this enzyme].,” Ukr. biokhimicheskii zhurnal, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 60–6.

24.J. Zempleni and W. Kübler, “The utilization of intravenously infused pyridoxine in humans,” Clin. Chim. Acta, vol. 229, no. 1–2, pp. 27–36, Sep. 1994.

25.J. Zempleni, “Pharmacokinetics of vitamin B6 supplements in humans.,” J. Am. Coll. Nutr., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 579–586, Dec. 1995.

26.J. Zempleni and W. Kübler, “Metabolism of vitamin B6 by human kidney,” Nutr. Res., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 187–192, Feb. 1995.


31.A. de Boer, F. van Hunsel, and A. Bast, “Adverse food–drug interactions,” Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 859–865, Dec. 2015.

32.A. Kılıç, G. Kamburoglu, and A. Akıncı, “Riboflavin injection into the corneal channel for combined collagen crosslinking and intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg., vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 878–883, May 2012.

33.J. M. Stephen, R. Grant, and C. S. Yeh, “Anaphylaxis from administration of intravenous thiamine,” Am. J. Emerg. Med., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 61–63, Jan. 1992.

34.K. D. Wrenn, F. Murphy, and C. M. Slovis, “A toxicity study of parenteral thiamine hydrochloride,” Ann. Emerg. Med., vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 867–870, Aug. 1989.

35.L.-S. Ou, M.-L. Kuo, and J.-L. Huang, “Anaphylaxis to riboflavin (vitamin B2),” Ann. Allergy, Asthma Immunol., vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 430–433, Nov. 2001.

36.P. M. Debourdeau, S. Djezzar, J. L. F. Estival, C. M. Zammit, R. C. Richard, and A. C. Castot, “Life-Threatening Eosinophilic Pleuropericardial Effusion Related to Vitamins B 5 and H,” Ann. Pharmacother., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 424–426, Apr. 2001.

37.H. Schaumburg et al., “Sensory Neuropathy from Pyridoxine Abuse,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 309, no. 8, pp. 445–448, Aug. 1983.

38.D. Patel et al., “Vitamins, Amino Acids, and Drugs and Formulations Used in Nutrition,” 2016, pp. 355–364.

1.Office of Dietary Supplements. Biotin fact sheet for health professionals. September 2018. Internet version, retrieved June 24, 2019. Available on the World Wide Web at: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Biotin-HealthProfessional/

2.Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes-Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and the Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline. 1999, 2000. The National Academy of Sciences Press, Washington DC.

3.US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA Safety Communication: Update: The FDA warns that biotin may interfere with lab tests.

4.Elston MS, Sehgal S, Toit SD, et al. Factitious graves’ disease due to biotin immunoassay interference – a case and review of the literature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016;101(9):3251-3255.

5.Fawcett WJ, Haxby EJ, Male DA. Magnesium: physiology and pharmacology. Br J Anaesth 1999;83:302-20.

6.Fleming M, Mihic SJ, Harris RA. Ethanol. Gilman AG, Hardman JG, Limbird LE, (eds.) In: Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 10th ed., New York, McGraw-Hill Companies. 2001:429-445.

1.Calcium gluconate 10% injection solution package insert. Lake Zurich, IL: Fresenius Kabi USA, LLC; 2018 July.

2.Vanden Hoek TL, Morrison LJ, Shuster M, et al. Part 12: Cardiac arrest in special situations: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation 2010;122:S829-861.

3.Lavonas EJ, Drennan IR, Gabrielli A. Part 10: special circumstances of resuscitation: 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2015;132(Suppl 2):S501-S518.

4.Kraft MD, Btaiche IF, Sacks GS, et al. Treatment of electrolyte disorders in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2005;62:1663-1682.

5.Kleinman ME, Chameides L, Schexnayder SM, et al. Part 14: pediatric advanced life support: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010;122:S876-908

6.Broner CW, Stidham GL, Westenkirchner DF, et al. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of calcium chloride and calcium gluconate therapies for hypocalcemia in critically ill children. J Pediatr 1990;117:986-989.

7.Anger KE, Belisle C, Colwell MB, et al. Safety of compounded calcium chloride admixtures for peripheral intravenous administration in the setting of a calcium gluconate shortage. J Pharm Pract 2014;27:474-477.

8.de Caen AR, Berg MD, Chameides L. Part 12: Pediatric Advanced Life Support: 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2015;132:S526-S542.

9.Reid IR, Ames RW, Evans MC, et al. Effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1993;328:460-4.

10.Straub DA. Calcium supplementation in clinical practice: A review of forms, doses, and indications. Nutr Clin Pract 2007;22(3):286-296.

11.Roberts KE. Pediatric fluid and electrolyte balance: Critical care case studies. Crit Care Nurs Clin N Am 2005;17:361-373.

12.Umpaichitra V, Bastian W, Castells S. Hypocalcemia in children: Pathogenesis and management. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2001;40(6):305-312.

13.Emkey RD, Emkey GR. Calcium metabolism and correcting calcium deficiencies. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2012;41(3):527-556.

14.Calcium gluconate tablets package insert. Eatontown, NJ: West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.; 2017 Mar.

15.Reber PM, Heath H, III. Hypocalcemic emergencies. Med Clin North Am 1995;79:93-106.

16.Calcium chloride 10% injection syringe package insert. Lake Forest, IL: Hospira, Inc.; 2009 Nov.

17.Hsu SC, Levine MA. Perinatal calcium metabolism: physiology and pathophysiology. Semin Neonatol 2004;9(1):23-36.

18.Burke RR, Rybicki BA, Rao DS. Calcium and vitamin D in sarcoidosis: how to assess and manage. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2010;31:474-484.

1.Freund H, Atamian S, Fischer JE. Chromium deficiency during total parenteral nutrition. JAMA 1979;241:496-498.

2.Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1997;46:1786-1791.

3.Ravina A, Slezak L, Mirsky N, et al. Reversal of corticosteroid induced diabetes mellitus with supplemental chromium. Diabet Med 1999;16:164-167.

4.Clarkson PM. Effects of exercise on chromium levels. Is supplementation required? Sports Med 1997;23:341-349.

5.Pasman WJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Saris WH. The effectiveness of long-term supplementation of carbohydrate, chromium, fibre, and caffeine on weight maintenance. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997;21:1143-1151.

6.Clancy SP, Clarkson PM, DeCheke ME, et al. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition, strength, and urinary chromium loss in football players. Int J Sport Nutr 1994;4:142-153.

7.Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes – Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes

8.Martin WR, Fuller RE. Suspected chromium picolinate-induced rhabdomyolysis Pharmacotherapy 1998;18:860-862.

9.Speetjens JK, Collins RA, Vincent JB et al. The nutritional supplement chromium (III) tris(picolinate) cleaves DNA. Chem Res Toxicol 1999;12:483-437.

10.Wasser WG, Feldman NS. Chronic renal failure after ingestion of over-the-counter chromium picolinate. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:410.

11.Cerulli J, Grabe DW, Gauthier I, et al. Chromium picolinate toxicity. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:428-31

1.Markle HV, Greenway DC. Cobalamin. Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences. 1996; 33: 247-356.

2.Herrmann W, Obeid R. Cobalamin deficiency. Subcell Biochem. 2012; 56: 301-322.

3.Paul C, Brady DM. Comparative Bioavailability and Utilization of Particular Forms of B12 Supplements With Potential to Mitigate B12-related Genetic Polymorphisms. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician’s Journal. 2017; 16: 42–49.

4.Vidal‐Alaball J, Butler C, Cannings‐John R, Goringe A, Hood K, McCaddon A, McDowell I, Papaioannou A. Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2005: CD004655.

5.O’Leary F, Samman S. Vitamin B12 in health and disease. Nutrients. 2010; 2: 299-316.

6.Sweetman SC, editor. Martindale: the complete drug reference, 34th ed. London: Pharmaceutical press; 2014.

7.CaloMist™ Nasal Spray (cyanocobalamin, USP) label. 2007. Available from: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2007/022102s000lbl.pdf [Accessed October 23, 2020].

8.Berry RJ. Lack of historical evidence to support folic acid exacerbation of the neuropathy caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2019; 110: 554-61.

9.Alamin A, Gupta V. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin). In: StatPearls [Internet]. 2020. StatPearls Publishing.

10.Froese DS, Fowler B, Baumgartner MR. Vitamin B12, folate, and the methionine remethylation cycle—biochemistry, pathways, and regulation. Journal of inherited metabolic disease. 2019; 42: 673-685.

11.Berney M, Berney-Meyer L, Wong KW, Chen B, Chen M, Kim J, Wang J, Harris D, Parkhill J, Chan J, Wang F. Essential roles of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine in the autarkic lifestyle of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2015; 112: 10008-10013.

12.Vasavada A, Sanghavi D. Cyanocobalamin. In: StatPearls [Internet] 2020. StatPearls Publishing.

13.Sanz-Cuesta T, González-Escobar P, Riesgo-Fuertes R, Garrido-Elustondo S, del Cura-González I, Martín-Fernández J, Escortell-Mayor E, Rodríguez-Salvanés F, García-Solano M, González-González R, Martín-de la Sierra MÁ. Oral versus intramuscular administration of vitamin B12 for the treatment of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency: a pragmatic, randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority clinical trial undertaken in the primary healthcare setting (Project OB12). BMC Public Health. 2012; 12:1-1.

14.Scott JM. Bioavailability of vitamin B12. European journal of clinical nutrition. Supplement. 1997; 51: S49-S53.

15.CYANOCOBALAMIN INJECTION, USP 1000 mcg/mL Sterile (Vitamin B12) [Label]. 2014. Available from: https://pdf.hres.ca/dpd_pm/00026115.PDF [Accessed October 26, 2020].

16.CYANOCOBALAMIN- cyanocobalamin injection, USP. West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp [Label]. 2018. Available from: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/fda/fdaDrugXsl.cfm?setid=a66eb3c4-3e1d-4d49-b963-4fa2334cc9b6 [Accessed October 26, 2020].

17.Watanabe F. Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability. Experimental biology and medicine. 2007; 232: 1266-1274.

18.Andrès E, Serraj K, Zhu J, Vermorken AJ. The pathophysiology of elevated vitamin B12 in clinical practice. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine. 2013; 106: 505-515.

19.Gherasim C, Lofgren M, Banerjee R. Navigating the B12 road: assimilation, delivery, and disorders of cobalamin. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2013; 288: 13186-13193.

20.Nascobal® (Cyanocobalamin, USP) Nasal Spray 500 mcg/spray 0.125 mL [Label]. 2014. Available from: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2014/021642s020lbl.pdf [Accessed October 26, 2020].

21.Caballero MR, Lukawska J, Lee TH, Dugué P. Allergy to vitamin B12: two cases of successful desensitization with cyanocobalamin. Allergy. 2007; 62: 1341-1342.

22.Carmel R. How I treat cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency. Blood. 2008; 112: 2214-2221.

23.Solomon LR. Disorders of cobalamin (vitamin B12) metabolism: emerging concepts in pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Blood reviews. 2007; 21: 113-130.

24.Chandyo RK, Ulak M, Kvestad I, Shrestha M, Ranjitkar S, Basnet S, Hysing M, Shrestha L, Strand TA. The effects of vitamin B12 supplementation in pregnancy and postpartum on growth and neurodevelopment in early childhood: Study Protocol for a Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial. BMJ open. 2017; 7: e016434.

25.Samson RR, McClelland DB. Vitamin B12 in human colostrum and milk: quantitation of the vitamin and its binder and the uptake of bound vitamin B12 by intestinal bacteria. Acta Pædiatrica. 1980; 69: 93-99.

26.American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics. 2001; 10

1.Dexpanthenol package insert. Shirley, NY: American Regent, Inc.; 2006 July

1.Czeizel AE. Prevention of congenital abnormalities by periconceptional multivitamin supplementation. Br Med J 1993;306:1645-8.

2.Folic acid injection package insert. Lake Zurich, IL: Fresenius Kabi USA, LLC; 2016 Nov.

3.MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991;338:131-7

4.American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Drugs. Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 2001;108(3):776-789.

5.Folic acid tablets package insert. Eatontown, NJ: West-ward Pharmaceutical Corp; 2011 Jan.

Böttger, F., Vallés-Martí, A., Cahn, L. et al. High-dose intravenous vitamin C, a promising multi-targeting agent in the treatment of cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 40, 343 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13046-021-02134-y

1.Yamori Y, Taguchi T, Hamada A, Kunimasa K, Mori H, Mori M. Taurine in health and diseases: consistent evidence from experimental and epidemiological studies. J Biomed Sci. 2010 Aug 24;17 Suppl 1:S6. doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-17-S1-S6.

2.Ahmadian M, Dabidi Roshan V, Ashourpore E. Taurine Supplementation Improves Functional Capacity, Myocardial Oxygen Consumption, and Electrical Activity in Heart Failure. J Diet Suppl. 2017 Jul 4;14(4):422-432. doi: 10.1080/19390211.2016.1267059. Epub 2017 Jan 24.

3.Chen W1, Guo J1, Zhang Y1, Zhang J1. The beneficial effects of taurine in preventing metabolic syndrome. Food Funct. 2016 Apr;7(4):1849-63. doi: 10.1039/c5fo01295c.

4.Sree, S. Lakshmi, and S. Sethupathy. “Evaluation of the Efficacy of Taurine as an Antioxidant in the Management of Patients with Chronic Periodontitis.” Dental Research Journal 11.2 (2014): 228–233. Print.

5.Balshaw TG1, Bampouras TM, Barry TJ, Sparks SA. The effect of acute taurine ingestion on 3-km running performance in trained middle-distance runners. Amino Acids. 2013 Feb;44(2):555-61. doi: 10.1007/s00726-012-1372-1. Epub 2012 Aug 2.

6.Seidl, R., Peyrl, A., Nicham, R. et al. Amino Acids (2000) 19: 635. https://doi.org/10.1007/s007260070013

7.Ripps, Harris & Shen, Wen. (2012). Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid. Molecular vision. 18. 2673-86.

8.Shao, Andrew & N Hathcock, John. (2008). Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP. 50. 376-99. 10.1016/j.yrtph.2008.01.004.

1.Richie JP Jr, Leutzinger Y, Parthasarathy S, Malloy V, Orentreich N, Zimmerman JA. Methionine restriction increases blood glutathione and longevity in F344 rats. FASEB J. 1994 Dec;8(15):1302-7.

2.Cascella R, Evangelisti E, Zampagni M, Becatti M, D’Adamio G, Goti A, Liguri G, Fiorillo C, Cecchi C. S-linolenoyl glutathione intake extends life-span and stress resistance via Sir-2.1 upregulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014 Aug;73:127-35. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.05.004. Epub 2014 May 15.

3.Anderson, M.E., Glutathione Injections: an overview of biosynthesis and modulation. Chem Biol Interact, 1998. 111-112: p. 1-14.

4.P., M. and C. G.P., Glutathione reductase: regulation and role in oxidative stress, in Oxidative stress and the molecular biology of antioxidant defenses. 1997, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

5.Lu, Shelly C. “REGULATION OF Glutathione SYNTHESIS.” Molecular aspects of medicine 30.1-2 (2009): 42–59. PMC. Web. 2 Oct. 2017.

6.Downey, J.S., et al., The LEC rat possesses reduced hepatic selenium, contributing to the severity of spontaneous hepatitis and sensitivity to carcinogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1998. 244(2): p. 463-7.

7.Banki, K., et al., Molecular ordering in HIV-induced apoptosis. Oxidative stress, activation of caspases, and cell survival are regulated by transaldolase. J Biol Chem, 1998. 273(19): p. 11944-53.

8.Shisler, J.L., et al., Ultraviolet-induced cell death blocked by a selenoprotein from a human dermatotropic poxvirus. Science, 1998. 279(5347): p. 102-5.

9.Okamoto, K., et al., Formation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins in human renal-cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer, 1994. 58(6): p. 825-9.

10.Chinery, R., et al., Antioxidants reduce cyclooxygenase-2 expression, prostaglandin production, and proliferation in colorectal cancer cells. Cancer Res, 1998. 58(11): p. 2323-7.

11.Lee, Y.J., et al., Glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity and alterations in mitogen-activated protein kinase activation are mediated by oxidative stress in multidrug-resistant human breast carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem, 1998. 273(9): p. 5294-9.

12.P., M. and C. G.P.,

Glutathione reductase: regulation and role in oxidative stress, in Oxidative stress and the molecular biology of antioxidant defenses. 1997, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

13.Hauser, R.A., et al., Randomized, double-blind, pilot evaluation of intravenous glutathione in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord, 2009. 24(7): p. 979-83.

14.Dröge W, Breitkreutz R. Glutathione and immune function. Proc Nutr Soc. 2000 Nov;59(4):595-600.

15.Chang WK, Yang KD, Chuang H, Jan JT, Shaio MF. Glutamine protects activated human T cells from apoptosis by up-regulating glutathione and Bcl-2 levels. Clin Immunol. 2002 Aug;104(2):151-60.

16.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 972913, 10 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/972913.


18.Balendiran GK1, Dabur R, Fraser D. The role of glutathione in cancer. Cell Biochem Funct. 2004 Nov-Dec;22(6):343-52.

19.Ballatori, Nazzareno et al. “Glutathione Dysregulation and the Etiology and Progression of Human Diseases.” Biological chemistry 390.3 (2009): 191–214. PMC. Web. 2 Oct. 2017.

20.Vogt, Barbara L., and John P. Richie. “Glutathione Depletion and Recovery After Acute Ethanol Administration in the Aging Mouse.” Biochemical pharmacology 73.10 (2007): 1613–1621. PMC. Web. 2 Oct. 2017.

21.Dimova S, Hoet PH, Dinsdale D, Nemery B. Acetaminophen decreases intracellular glutathione levels and modulates cytokine production in human alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes in vitro. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005 Aug;37(8):1727-37. Epub 2005 Apr 26.

22.Abhilash, M., Varghese, M.V., Paul, M.V.S. et al. Comp Clin Pathol (2015) 24: 927. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-014-2013-8

23.Romero DL, Mounho BJ, Lauer FT, Born JL, Burchiel SW. Depletion of glutathione by benzo(a)pyrene metabolites, ionomycin, thapsigargin, and phorbol myristate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 May;144(1):62-9.

24.National Research Council (US). Multiple Chemical Sensitivities: A Workshop. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1992. Considerations for the Diagnosis of Chemical Sensitivity.

25.Lenzi A1, Lombardo F, Gandini L, Culasso F, Dondero F. Glutathione therapy for male infertility. Arch Androl. 1992 Jul-Aug;29(1):65-8.

26.Coppola L, Grassia A, Giunta R, Verrazzo G, Cava B, Tirelli A, D’Onofrio F. Glutathione (Glutathione) improved haemostatic and haemorheological parameters in atherosclerotic subjects. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1992;18(11-12):493-8.

27.Weschawalit, Sinee et al. “Glutathione and Its Antiaging and Antimelanogenic Effects.” Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology 10 (2017): 147–153. PMC. Web. 2 Oct. 2017.


2.National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID=750, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/750 (accessed Oct. 6, 2017).

3.Guo, Zhi-li et al. “DanHong Injection Dose-Dependently Varies Amino Acid Metabolites and Metabolic Pathways in the Treatment of Rats with Cerebral Ischemia.” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 36.6 (2015): 748–757. PMC. Web. 6 Oct. 2017.

4.Yang, Guang, Benjamin B. Rothrauff, and Rocky S. Tuan. “Tendon and Ligament Regeneration and Repair: Clinical Relevance and Developmental Paradigm.” Birth defects research. Part C, Embryo today : reviews 99.3 (2013): 203–222. PMC. Web. 6 Oct. 2017.

5.Alfonso E. Bello & Steffen Oesser. Current Medical Research and Opinion Vol. 22 , Iss. 11,2006.

6.Da Silva, Robin P. et al. “Creatine Synthesis: Hepatic Metabolism of Guanidinoacetate and Creatine in the Rat in Vitro and in Vivo.” American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism 296.2 (2009): E256–E261. PMC. Web. 6 Oct. 2017.

7.Arwert LI, Deijen JB, Drent ML. Effects of an oral mixture containing glycine, glutamine and niacin on memory, GH and IGF-I secretion in middle-aged and elderly subjects. Nutr Neurosci. 2003 Oct;6(5):269-75.

8.Bowery, N G, and T G Smart. “GABA and Glycine as Neurotransmitters: A Brief History.” British Journal of Pharmacology 147.Suppl 1 (2006): S109–S119. PMC. Web. 6 Oct. 2017.

9.Shen, Hai-Ying et al. “Glycine Transporter 1 Is a Target for the Treatment of Epilepsy.” Neuropharmacology 99 (2015): 554–565. PMC. Web. 6 Oct. 2017.

10.Algon, Sibel et al. “Evaluation and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Psychotic Symptoms.” Current psychiatry reports 14.2 (2012): 101–110. PMC. Web. 6 Oct. 2017.

11.Ruth, Megan R, and Catherine J Field. “The Immune Modifying Effects of Amino Acids on Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue.” Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 4.1 (2013): 27. PMC. Web. 6 Oct. 2017.

12.Li P, Wu G. Roles of dietary glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline in collagen synthesis and animal growth. Amino Acids. 2017 Sep 20. doi: 10.1007/s00726-017-2490-6. [Epub ahead of print].

13.Ruth and Field; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology20134:27 https://doi.org/10.1186/2049-1891-4-27.

14.Wang WW, Qiao SY, Li DF. Amino acids and gut function. Amino Acids. 2009 May;37(1):105-10. doi: 10.1007/s00726-008-0152-4. Epub 2008 Aug 1.

15.Sheth, H., Hafez, T., Glantzounis, G. K., Seifalian, A. M., Fuller, B. and Davidson, B. R. (2011), Glycine maintains mitochondrial activity and bile composition following warm liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 26: 194–200. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2010.06323.x

16.Li, Changhong et al. “Regulation of Glucagon Secretion in Normal and Diabetic Human Islets by Γ-Hydroxybutyrate and Glycine.” The Journal of Biological Chemistry 288.6 (2013): 3938–3951. PMC. Web. 6 Oct. 2017.

17.Sekhar RV, Patel SG, Guthikonda AP, Reid M, Balasubramanyam A, Taffet GE, Jahoor F. Deficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep;94(3):847-53. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.003483. Epub 2011 Jul 27.

18.Kasai K, Kobayashi M, Shimoda SI. Stimulatory effect of glycine on human growth hormone secretion. Metabolism. 1978 Feb;27(2):201-8.

19.Lustgarten MS, Price LL, Phillips EM, Fielding RA. Serum glycine is associated with regional body fat and insulin resistance in functionally-limited older adults. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 31;8(12):e84034. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084034. eCollection 2013.

20.Alfonso E. Bello & Steffen Oesser.Current Medical Research and Opinion Vol. 22 , Iss. 11,2006.

21.Schwieler L, Linderholm KR, Nilsson-Todd LK, Erhardt S, Engberg G. Clozapine interacts with the glycine site of the NMDA receptor: electrophysiological studies of dopamine neurons in the rat ventral tegmental area. Life Sci. 2008 Aug 1;83(5-6):170-5. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2008.05.014. Epub 2008 Jun 10.

22.Gusev EI, Skvortsova VI, Dambinova SA, Raevskiy KS, Alekseev AA, Bashkatova VG, Kovalenko AV, Kudrin VS, Yakovleva EV. Neuroprotective effects of glycine for therapy of acute ischaemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2000 Jan-Feb;10(1):49-60.

1.L. D. Smith and U. Garg, “Disorders of vitamins and cofactors,” in Biomarkers in Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Elsevier, 2017, pp. 361–397.

2.C. Paul and D. M. Brady, “Comparative Bioavailability and Utilization of Particular Forms of B12 Supplements With Potential to Mitigate B12-related Genetic Polymorphisms.,” Integr. Med. (Encinitas)., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 42–49, Feb. 2017.

3.A. G. Freeman, “Optic Neuropathy and Chronic Cyanide Intoxication: A Review,” J. R. Soc. Med., vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 103–106, Feb. 1988.

4.“Pernicious Anemia,” National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. [Online]. Available: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/pernicious-anemia. [Accessed: 16-Aug-2020].

5.P. A. McINTYRE, “Pathogenesis and Treatment of Macrocytic Anemia,” AMA. Arch. Intern. Med., vol. 98, no. 5, p. 541, Nov. 1956.

6.“WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children,” World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines for Children, 7th List, 2019.

7.M. Dobss, “Cyanide,” in Clinical Neurotoxicology, Elsevier, 2009, pp. 515–522.

8.I. Chisholm, J. Bronte-Stewart, and W. Foulds, “HYDROXOCOBALAMIN VERSUS CYANOCOBALAMIN IN THE TREATMENT OF TOBACCO AMBLYOPIA,” Lancet, vol. 290, no. 7513, pp. 450–451, Aug. 1967.

9.K. Thakkar and G. Billa, “Treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency–Methylcobalamine? Cyancobalamine? Hydroxocobalamin?—clearing the confusion,” Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 1–2, Jan. 2015.

10.E. R. Ahangar and P. Annamaraju, Hydroxocobalamin. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, 2020.

11.G. B. J. GLASS, H. R. SKEGGS, and D. H. LEE, “Hydroxocobalamin,” Blood, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 234–241, Feb. 1966.

12.C. P. Holstege, “Poisoning Emergencies in Humans,” Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 2nd Edition. 2005.

13.J. Hamel, “A Review of Acute Cyanide Poisoning With a Treatment Update,” Crit. Care Nurse, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 72–82, Feb. 2011.

14.A. D. Shapeton, F. Mahmood, and J. P. Ortoleva, “Hydroxocobalamin for the Treatment of Vasoplegia: A Review of Current Literature and Considerations for Use,” J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 894–901, Apr. 2019.

15.S. N. Fedosov, L. Berglund, N. U. Fedosova, E. Nexø, and T. E. Petersen, “Comparative Analysis of Cobalamin Binding Kinetics and Ligand Protection for Intrinsic Factor, Transcobalamin, and Haptocorrin,” J. Biol. Chem., vol. 277, no. 12, pp. 9989–9996, Mar. 2002.

16.C. Gherasim, M. Lofgren, and R. Banerjee, “Navigating the B 12 Road: Assimilation, Delivery, and Disorders of Cobalamin,” J. Biol. Chem., vol. 288, no. 19, pp. 13186–13193, May 2013.

17.G. Marcoullis and S. Rothenberg, “Macromolecules in the assimilation and transport of cobalamin,” Contemp. Issues Clin. Nutr., vol. V, pp. 59–119, 1983.

18.“Hydroxocobalamin injection package insert.” Parsippany, NJ, Actavis Pharma, Inc.

19.J. A. Begley, P. D. Colligan, and R. C. Chu, “Transcobalamin II Mediated Delivery of Albumin-Bound Hydroxocobalamin to Human Liver Cells,” Exp. Biol. Med., vol. 204, no. 2, pp. 206–210, Nov. 1993.

20.C. Hall, J. Begley, and P. Green-Colligan, “The availability of therapeutic hydroxocobalamin to cells,” Blood, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 335–341, Feb. 1984.

21.“CYANOKIT.” Product label: CYANOKIT (hydroxocobalamin) injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution [Meridian Medical Technologies, Inc.] Last revised: Dec 2019 [DailyMed].

22.E. R. Ahangar and P. Annamaraju, Hydroxocobalamin. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, 2020.

23.S. Dally and M. Gaultier, “[Anaphylactic shock caused by hydroxocobalamin].,” Nouv. Presse Med., vol. 5, no. 30, p. 1917, Sep. 1976.

24.G. Hovding, “Anaphylactic reaction after injection of vitamin B12.,” BMJ, vol. 3, no. 5610, pp. 102–102, Jul. 1968.

25.“CYANOKIT.” Product label: CYANOKIT (hydroxocobalamin) injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution [Meridian Medical Technologies, Inc.] Last revised: Dec 2019 [DailyMed].

26.O. J. Ayodele, “Megaloblastic Anemia,” in Current Topics in Anemia, InTech, 2018.

27.R. Hesp, I. Chanarin, and C. E. Tait, “Potassium Changes in Megaloblastic Anaemia,” Clin. Sci., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 77–79, Jul. 1975.

28.J. Chandra et al., “Tremors and thrombocytosis during treatment of megaloblastic anaemia,” Ann. Trop. Paediatr., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 101–105, Jun. 2006.

29.M. Sutter, N. Tereshchenko, R. Rafii, and G. P. Daubert, “Hemodialysis Complications of Hydroxocobalamin: A Case Report,” J. Med. Toxicol., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 165–167, Jun. 2010.

30.K. R. Jones, “Hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit),” Adv. Emerg. Nurs. J., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 112–121, Apr. 2008.

31.E. J. D. Roderique, A. A. Gebre-Giorgis, D. H. Stewart, M. J. Feldman, and A. L. Pozez, “Smoke Inhalation Injury in a Pregnant Patient,” J. Burn Care Res., vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 624–633, 2012.

32.“BREASTFEEDING AND MATERNAL MEDICATION Recommendations for Drugs in the Eleventh WHO Model List of Essential Drugs.”

33.“BCG live – Drug Summary,” PDR, LLC. .

34.“Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database.” [Online]. Available: https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/. [Accessed: 29-Aug-2020].

35.H. F. Pierson, J. M. Fisher, and M. Rabinovitz, “Depletion of Extracellular Cysteine with Hydroxocobalamin and Ascorbate in Experimental Murine Cancer Chemotherapy,” Cancer Res., vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 4727 LP – 4731, Oct. 1985.

36.D. R. Buvat, “Use of metformin is a cause of vitamin B12 deficiency.,” Am. Fam. Physician, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 264; author reply 264, 266, Jan. 2004.

37.W. A. Bauman, S. Shaw, E. Jayatilleke, A. M. Spungen, and V. Herbert, “Increased intake of calcium reverses vitamin B12 malabsorption induced by metformin.,” Diabetes Care, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1227–31, Sep. 2000.

38.“Vitamin B12 Fact Sheet for Health Professionals.” [Online]. Available: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/vitamin B12-HealthProfessional/#en86. [Accessed: 29-Aug-2020].

39.“Nursing Central,” Unbound Medicine, Inc. [Online]. Available: https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/109246/13/hydroxocobalamin. [Accessed: 08-Feb-2020].

40.J. E. Dimmel, A. Patel, J. F. Clark, V. S. Bhave, E. Samuel, and V. Mody, “Vitamins, amino acids, and drugs and formulations used in nutrition,” 2019, pp. 387–400.

41.W. Uhl, A. Nolting, G. Golor, K. Ludwig Rost, and A. Kovar, “Safety of Hydroxocobalamin in Healthy Volunteers in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study,” Clin. Toxicol., vol. 44, no. sup1, pp. 17–28, Jan. 2006.

1.Ceremuzynski L, Chamiec T, Herbaczynska-Cedro K. Effect of supplemental oral L-arginine on exercise capacity in patients with stable angina pectoris. Am J Card 1997;80:331-333.

2.Arginine hydrochloride injection (R-GENE) package insert. Lake Forest, IL: Hospira Inc.; 2010 Jan.

3.Ammonul (sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate) injection package insert. Scottsdale, AZ: Ucyclyd Pharma Inc.; 2011 Jul

4.Summar M. Current strategies for the management of neonatal urea cycle disorders. J Pediatr 2001; 138: S30-S39.

5.Batshaw, ML, MacArthur RB, Tuchman M. Alternative pathway therapy for urea cycle disorders: twenty years later. J Pediatr 2001; 138:S46-S55

6.Adrogue HJ, Madias NE: Management of life-threatening acid-base disorders. Second of two parts. N Eng J Med 1998;338:107-11.

7.Bode-Boger SM, Boger RH, Galland A. L-arginine-induced vasodilation in healthy humans: pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 46: 489-497.

8.Tangphao O, Grossmann M, Chalon S, et al. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral L-arginine in normal volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 47: 261-266.

9.Bushinsky DA, Gennari J. Life-threatening hyperkalemia induced by arginine. Annals of Internal Medicine 1978; 89: 632-634.

10.FDA: Arginine hydrochloride injection (marketed as R-Gene 10). FDA Drug Safety Newsletter 2009;2(2):16-18.

11.Mudge GH, Weiner IM. Agents affecting volume and composition of body fluids. Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, (eds.) In: Goodman and Gilman’s Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th ed., New York, Pergamon Press. 1990:620, 696—97.

12.Hamilton C. Acid-base disorders Gilman AG, Wells BG, Dipiro JT, Schwinghammer TL, et al. (eds.) In: Pharmacotherapy Handbook. 5th ed., New York, Pergamon Press. 1993:753—61.

13.Mudge GH, Weiner IM. Agents affecting volume and composition of body fluids. Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, (eds.) In: Goodman and Gilman’s Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th ed., New York, Pergamon Press. 1990:620, 696-97.

14.Hamilton C. Acid-base disorders Gilman AG, Wells BG, Dipiro JT, Schwinghammer TL, et al. (eds.) In: Pharmacotherapy Handbook. 5th ed., New York, Pergamon Press. 1993:753-61.

15.Colchicine Tablets, USP package insert. Corona, CA: Watson Laboratories, Inc.; 2001 Jun.

16.Bellward GD, Warren PM, Howald W, et al. Methadone maintenance: effect of urinary pH on renal clearance in chronic high and low doses. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1977;22:92—9.

17.Nilsson M-I, Widerlov E, Meresaar U, et al. Effect of urinary pH on the disposition of methadone in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1982;22:337—42.

18.Wolff K, Rostami-Hodjegan A, Hay AW, et al. Population-based pharmacokinetic approach for methadone monitoring of opiate addicts: potential clinical utility. Addiction 2000;95:1771—83.

19.Dolophine® (methadone) package insert. Columbus, OH: Roxane Laboratories, Inc; 2006 Oct.

20.Batshaw, ML, MacArthur RB, Tuchman M. Alternative pathway therapy for urea cycle disorders: twenty years later. J Pediatr 2001; 138:S46 S55

1.Brass EP. Supplemental carnitine and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72(suppl):618S-623S.

2.Carnitor (levocarnitine) injection package insert. Gaithersburg, MD: Sigma Tau Pharmaceuticals; 2015 Apr.

3.Carnitor (levocarnitine) tablets, oral solution, and sugar-free oral solution package insert. Gaithersburg, MD: Sigma Tau Pharmaceuticals; 2015 Apr.

1.D. Tomé and C. Bos, “Lysine Requirement through the Human Life Cycle,” J. Nutr., vol. 137, no. 6, pp. 1642S-1645S, Jun. 2007.

2.E. Volpi, A. A. Ferrando, C. W. Yeckel, K. D. Tipton, and R. R. Wolfe, “Exogenous amino acids stimulate net muscle protein synthesis in the elderly.,” J. Clin. Invest., vol. 101, no. 9, pp. 2000–2007, May 1998.

3.S. H. Kim, Y. kyung Chung, J. Y. Chang, S. K. Lee, M. S. Lee, and S. K. Park, “Stable liquid formulation of human growth hormone,” US8409586B2.

4.F. Papes, M. J. Surpili, F. Langone, J. R. Trigo, and P. Arruda, “The essential amino acid lysine acts as precursor of glutamate in the mammalian central nervous system,” FEBS Lett., vol. 488, no. 1–2, pp. 34–38, Jan. 2001.

5.R. Civitelli, D. T. Villareal, D. Agnusdei, P. Nardi, L. V Avioli, and C. Gennari, “Dietary L-lysine and calcium metabolism in humans.,” Nutrition, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 400–5.

6.E. L. J. Bonner and R. Hines, “Method for treatment of reactive arthritis or bursitis,” US6765000B2, 2004.

7.K. Gerzon, “Herpes treatment,” US4415590A, 1983.

8.M. Singh et al., “Medicinal Uses of L-Lysine: Past and Future,” Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci., vol. 2, pp. 637–642, 2011.

9.C. Wass et al., “L-lysine as adjunctive treatment in patients with schizophrenia: a single-blinded, randomized, cross-over pilot study.,” BMC Med., vol. 9, p. 40, Apr. 2011.

10.N. W. Flodin, “The metabolic roles, pharmacology, and toxicology of lysine.,” J. Am. Coll. Nutr., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 7–21, Feb. 1997.

11.T. Kato, M. Sano, and N. Mizutani, “Inhibitory effect of intravenous lysine infusion on urea cycle metabolism,” Eur. J. Pediatr., vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 56–58, Jan. 1987.

12.S. Guo and L. A. Dipietro, “Factors affecting wound healing.,” J. Dent. Res., vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 219–29, Mar. 2010.

13.K. F. Harlow, “L-Lysine Hydrochloride: An Alternative Prophylactic Therapy Reducing the Recurrence Rate of Herpes Labialis,” Pacific University, 2015.

14.R. S. Griffith, D. C. DeLong, and J. D. Nelson, “Relation of Arginine-Lysine Antagonism to Herpes simplex Growth in Tissue Culture,” Chemotherapy, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 209–213, 1981.

15.F. Vuvor and T. Ndanu, “Effect of lysine supplementation on cardiovascular response to stressors of households in two peri-urban communities in Ghana,” J. Heal. Res. Rev., vol. 3, no. 3, p. 92, 2016.

16.W. G. Walker, H. Dickerman, and L. J. Jost, “Mechanism of lysine-induced kaliuresis,” Am. J. Physiol. Content, vol. 206, no. 2, pp. 409–414, Feb. 1964.

18.V. J. Mailoo and S. Rampes, “Lysine for Herpes Simplex Prophylaxis: A Review of the Evidence.,” Integr. Med. (Encinitas)., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 42–46, Jun. 2017.

19.M. Lukkarinen, K. Näntö-Salonen, K. Pulkki, K. Mattila, and O. Simell, “Effect of lysine infusion on urea cycle in lysinuric protein intolerance,” Metabolism, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 621–625, May 2000.

17.F. C. I. Fellows and M. H. R. Lewis, “Lysine metabolism in mammals,” Biochem. J., vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 329–334, Oct. 1973.

20.R. Elango and R. O. Ball, “Protein and Amino Acid Requirements during Pregnancy,” Adv. Nutr. An Int. Rev. J., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 839S-844S, Jul. 2016.

21.M. Payne, T. Stephens, K. Lim, R. O. Ball, P. B. Pencharz, and R. Elango, “Lysine Requirements of Healthy Pregnant Women are Higher During Late Stages of Gestation Compared to Early Gestation,” J. Nutr., vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 94–99, Jan. 2018.

22.L. Bumpstead, “Long-term use of supplemental lysine – is it safe?,” J. Aust. Tradit. Soc., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 228–231, 2013.

23.P. J. Garlick, “The Nature of Human Hazards Associated with Excessive Intake of Amino Acids,” J. Nutr., vol. 134, no. 6, pp. 1633S-1639S, Oct. 2004.

1.W.J.Fawcett, E.J.Haxby and D.A.Male, “Magnesium: physiology and pharmacology”, British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol.83, no.2, pp.302 – 320, 1999

2.L.Grycova, P.Sklenovsky, Z.Lansky, M.Janovska, M.Otyepka, E.Amler, J.Teisinger, and M.Kubala, “ATP and magnesium drive conformational changes of the Na+/K+ -ATPase cytoplasmic headpiece”, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Biomembranes, vol. 1788, issue 5, pp. 1081 -1091, May 2009

3.“Magnesium: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals”, National Institutes of Health.[Online].

4.W.J.Fawcett, E.J.Haxby and D.A.Male, “Magnesium: physiology and pharmacology”, British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol.83, no.2

5.“Magnesium chloride”, National Center for Biotechnology Information (2020). [Online].

6.“DiNicolantonio JJ, Liu J, and O’Keefe JH, “’Magnesium for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease” Open Heart vol. 5, issue 2, 2018.[Online].

7.M.Liu, E.Jeong, H.Liu, A.Xie, E.Young So, G.Shi, G.E.Jeong, A.Zhou, and S.C.Dudley Jr., “Magnesium supplementation improves diabetic mitochondrial and cardiac diastolic function”, JCI insight. [Online].

8.“Magnesium Chloride”, Drug Bank. [Online].

9.“Magnesium Chloride (Rx)”, Medscape. [Online].

10.M.J. Allen, S. Sharma, “Magnesium”, Treasure Island (FL). StatPearls Publishing, Jan.2020. [Online].

11.M.J. Specter, E. Schweizer, and R.H. Goldman, “Studies on Magnesium’s Mechanism of Action in Digitalis-induced Arrhythmias”. [Online}.

12.M.F. Ghani, J.R. Smith, “The effectiveness of magnesium chloride in the treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias due to digitalis intoxication”, American Heart Journal, vol. 88, issue 5, pp. 621 – 626, November 1974. [Online}.

13.F. Kraus, “Reversal of diastolic dysfunction by intravenous magnesium chloride”, The Canadian Journal of Cardiology, vol.9, issue 7, pp. 618-620, September 1999. [Online].

14.Kaya M, Ahishali B. “The role of magnesium in edema and blood brain barrier disruption.”, Magnesium in the Central Nervous System [Internet]. University of Adelaide Press, 2011. [Online]

15.A.M. Uwitonze, M.S. Razzaque, “Role of Magnesium in Vitamin D Activation and Function”, The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, Vol. 118, pp. 181-189, March 2018. [Online].

16.A.A. Welch, J. Skinner, and M. Hickson, “Dietary Magnesium May Be Protective for Aging of Bone and Skeletal Muscle in Middle and Younger Older Age Men and Women: Cross-Sectional Findings from the UK Biobank Cohort”, National Institutes of Health. [Online].

17.B. J. Stojak, E. Halajian, R.A. Guthmann, and J. Nashelsky, “Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate for Acute Asthma Exacerbations”, American family physician, vol. 99, no.2, pp. 127–128. [Online].

18.W. Jahnen-Dechent, M. Ketteler, “Magnesium basics”, Clinical Kidney Journal. [Online].

19.F.A. Ajib, J.M. Childres, “Magnesium Toxicity”. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; Jan. 2020. [Online].

20.M.P. Guerrera, S.L. Volpe, J.J Mao, “Therapeutic Uses of Magnesium), American Family Physician, vol. 80, issue 2, pp. 157-162, July 2009. [Online].

21.S.J. Bird, “Overview of the treatment of myasthenia gravis”, UpToDate. [Online].

22.“Magnesium Chloride: Drug information”, UpToDate. [Online].

23.“Magnesium chloride Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings”. [Online].

24.U. Grober, “Magnesium and Drugs”, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 20, issue 9, May 2019. [Online].

25.“Magnesium”. RxLIst. [Online].

1.Cantó C, Menzies KJ, Auwerx J. NAD+ Metabolism and the Control of Energy Homeostasis: A Balancing Act between Mitochondria and the Nucleus. Cell Metab. 2015;22(1):31-53. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2015.05.023

2.Johnson S, Imai SI. NAD+ biosynthesis, aging, and disease. F1000Research. 2018;7. doi:10.12688/f1000research.12120.1

3.Belenky P, Bogan KL, Brenner C. NAD+ metabolism in health and disease. Trends Biochem Sci. 2007;32(1):12-19. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2006.11.006

4.Guse AH. The Ca2+-Mobilizing Second Messenger Cyclic ADP-Ribose. In: Calcium: The Molecular Basis of Calcium Action in Biology and Medicine. Springer Netherlands; 2000:109-128. doi:10.1007/978-94-010-0688-0_7

5.Billington RA, Travelli C, Ercolano E, et al. Characterization of NAD uptake in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283(10):6367-6374. doi:10.1074/jbc.M706204200

6.Massudi H, Grant R, Braidy N, Guest J, Farnsworth B, Guillemin GJ. Age-Associated Changes In Oxidative Stress and NAD+ Metabolism In Human Tissue. Polymenis M, ed. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e42357. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042357

7.Camacho-Pereira J, Tarragó MG, Chini CCS, et al. CD38 Dictates Age-Related NAD Decline and Mitochondrial Dysfunction through an SIRT3-Dependent Mechanism. Cell Metab. 2016;23(6):1127-1139. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2016.05.006

8.Yoshino J, Mills KF, Yoon MJ, Imai SI. Nicotinamide mononucleotide, a key NAD + intermediate, treats the pathophysiology of diet- and age-induced diabetes in mice. Cell Metab. 2011;14(4):528-536. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2011.08.014

9.Goldberger J. Public Health Reports, June 26, 1914. The etiology of pellagra. The significance of certain epidemiological observations with respect thereto. Public Health Rep. 1975;90(4):373-375. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1437745/. Accessed October 11, 2020.

10.Grant R, Berg J, Mestayer R, et al. A Pilot Study Investigating Changes in the Human Plasma and Urine NAD+ Metabolome During a 6 Hour Intravenous Infusion of NAD+. Front Aging Neurosci. 2019;11. doi:10.3389/fnagi.2019.00257

11.Wu J, Jin Z, Zheng H, Yan LJ. Sources and implications of NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance in diabetes and its complications. Diabetes, Metab Syndr Obes Targets Ther. 2016;9:145-153. doi:10.2147/DMSO.S106087

12.Pillai JB, Isbatan A, Imai SI, Gupta MP. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-dependent cardiac myocyte cell death during heart failure is mediated by NAD+ depletion and reduced Sir2α deacetylase activity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(52):43121-43130. doi:10.1074/jbc.M506162200

13.Csiszar A, Tarantini S, Yabluchanskiy A, et al. Role of endothelial NAD+ deficiency in age-related vascular dysfunction. Am J Physiol – Hear Circ Physiol. 2019;316(6):H1253-H1266. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00039.2019

14.Ying W, Xiong Z-G. Oxidative Stress and NAD+ in Ischemic Brain Injury: Current Advances and Future Perspectives. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(20):2152-2158. doi:10.2174/092986710791299911

15.Zhu X, Su B, Wang X, Smith MA, Perry G. Causes of oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007;64(17):2202-2210. doi:10.1007/s00018-007-7218-4

16.Abeti R, Duchen MR. Activation of PARP by oxidative stress induced by β-amyloid: Implications for Alzheimer’s disease. Neurochem Res. 2012;37(11):2589-2596. doi:10.1007/s11064-012-0895-x

17.Lin JB, Apte RS. NAD + and sirtuins in retinal degenerative diseases: A look at future therapies. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2018;67:118-129. doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.06.002

18.O’Hollaren P. Diphosphopyridine nucleotide in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction. West J Surg Obstet Gynecol. May 1961.

19.Mestayer PN. Addiction: The Dark Night of the Soul/ Nad+: The Light of Hope – Paula Norris Mestayer – Google Books. Balboa Press; 2019. https://books.google.com/books?id=t7qEDwAAQBAJ&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Accessed October 11, 2020.

20.Braidy N, Villalva MD, van Eeden S. Sobriety and satiety: Is NAD+ the answer? Antioxidants. 2020;9(5). doi:10.3390/antiox9050425

21.Gerdts J, Brace EJ, Sasaki Y, DiAntonio A, Milbrandt J. SARM1 activation triggers axon degeneration locally via NAD+ destruction. Science (80- ). 2015;348(6233):453-457. doi:10.1126/science.1258366

22.Essuman K, Summers DW, Sasaki Y, Mao X, DiAntonio A, Milbrandt J. The SARM1 Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor Domain Possesses Intrinsic NAD+ Cleavage Activity that Promotes Pathological Axonal Degeneration. Neuron. 2017;93(6):1334-1343.e5. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2017.02.022

23.Oshima J, Sidorova JM, Jr. Monnat RJ. Werner syndrome: Clinical features, pathogenesis and potential therapeutic interventions. Ageing Res Rev. 2017;33:105-114.

24.Yu CE, Oshima J, Fu YH, et al. Positional cloning of the Werner’s syndrome gene. Science (80- ). 1996;272(5259):258-262. doi:10.1126/science.272.5259.258

25.Fang EF, Hou Y, Lautrup S, et al. NAD+ augmentation restores mitophagy and limits accelerated aging in Werner syndrome. Nat Commun. 2019;10(1):1-18. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13172-


1.Pyridoxine Hydrochloride Injection, USP. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/fda/fdaDrugXsl.cfm?setid=a56d11c0-b033-4201-85ff-fc710506481a&type=display

2.Spinneker, A. et al. Vitamin B6 status, deficiency and its consequences – An overview. Nutricion Hospitalaria (2007). 

3.Vitamin B6 – Health Professional Fact Sheet. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB6-HealthProfessional/#h3

4.Wilson, S. M., Bivins, B. N., Russell, K. A. & Bailey, L. B. Oral contraceptive use: impact on folate, vitamin B 6 , and vitamin B 12 statusn ure_419 572..583. (2011) doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00419.x. 

5.Abosamak, N. E. R. & Gupta, V. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine). (2020). 

6.Hallert, C. et al. Evidence of poor vitamin status in coeliac patients on a gluten-free diet for 10 years. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 16, 1333–1339 (2002). 

7.Veitch, R. L., Lumeng, L. & Li, T. K. Vitamin B6 metabolism in chronic alcohol abuse. The effect of ethanol oxidation on hepatic pyridoxal 5’ phosphate metabolism. J. Clin. Invest. 55, 1026–1032 (1975). 

8.Sacharow, S. J., Picker, J. D. & Levy, H. L. Homocystinuria Caused by Cystathionine Beta-Synthase Deficiency. GeneReviews® (University of Washington, Seattle, 1993). 

9.Abu-Zeinah, G. & Desancho, M. T. Understanding sideroblastic anemia: An overview of genetics, epidemiology, pathophysiology and current therapeutic options. Journal of Blood Medicine vol. 11 305–318 (2020). 

12.Kennedy, A. & Schaeffer, T. Pyridoxine. in Critical Care Toxicology 1–4 (Springer International Publishing, 2016). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-20790-2_174-1. 

13.Zempleni, J. & Kübler, W. Metabolism of vitamin B6 by human kidney. Nutr. Res. 15, 187–192 (1995). 

14.Zempleni, J. & Kübler, W. The utilization of intravenously infused pyridoxine in humans. Clin. Chim. Acta 229, 27–36 (1994). 

15.Pyridoxine hydrochloride injection, USP package insert. Schaumburg, IL: American Pharmaceutical Partners; 2008 April.

24.Mars, H. Levodopa, Carbidopa, and Pyridoxine in Parkinson Disease: Metabolic Interactions. Arch. Neurol. 30, 444–447 (1974). 

25.Vitamin B-6 – Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-vitamin-b6/art-20363468

16.Diclegis (doxylamine; pyridoxine) package insert. Bryn Mawr, PA: Duchesnay USA, Inc.; 2013 Apr.

17.Sahakian, V., Rouse, D., Sipes, S., Rose, N. & Niebyl, J. Vitamin B6 is effective therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Obstet. Gynecol. 78, 33–36 (1991). 

18.Vutyavanich, T., Wongtra-ngan, S. & Ruangsri, R. aroon. Pyridoxine for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 173, 881–884 (1995). 

19.Matthews, A., Haas, D. M., O’Mathúna, D. P., Dowswell, T. & Doyle, M. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews vol. 2014 (2014). 

20.ACOG Practice Bulletin #52: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. (2004) doi:10.1097/00006250-200404000-00045. 

21.American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Drugs. Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 2001;108:776-89.

22.AlSaad, D. et al. Is pyridoxine effective and safe for post-partum lactation inhibition? A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics vol. 42 373–382 (2017). 

23.Shrim, A. et al. Pregnancy outcome following use of large doses of vitamin B6 in the first trimester. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. (Lahore). 26, 749–751 (2006). 

26.Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (National Academies Press, 1998). doi:10.17226/6015. 

27.Schaumburg H, Kaplan J, Windebank A, et al. Sensory neuropathy from pyridoxine abuse. N Engl J Med 1983;309:445-8.

28.Parry GJ, Breesen DE. Sensory neuropathy with low-dose pyridoxine. Neurology 1985;35:1466-1468.

29.Lheureux P, Penaloza A, Gris M. Pyridoxine in clinical toxicology: a review. Eur J Emerg Med 2005;12:78-85

1.Schoenen J, Jacquy J, Lenaerts M. Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. Neurology 1998;50:466-470.

2.Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes – Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Panthothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline and the Subcommittee on Upp

3.American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Drugs. Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 2001;108(3):776-789.

4.Riboflavin (vitamin B2). McKevoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.

1.Peter J. Reeds. Dispensable and Indispensable Amino Acids for Humans. J Nutr. 2000 Jul;130(7):1835S-40S.

2.Yarandi, Shadi S. et al. “Amino Acid Composition in Parenteral Nutrition: What Is the Evidence?” Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care 14.1 (2011): 75–82. PMC. Web. 29 Sept. 2017.

3.Wu G. Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition. Amino Acids. 2009 May;37(1):1-17. doi: 10.1007/s00726-009-0269-0. Epub 2009 Mar 20.

4.Critical Care201519:204.https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-015-0881-1. Piton and Capellier; licensee BioMed Central. 2015. Published: 1 May 2015.

5.Elam RP, Hardin DH, Sutton RA, Hagen L. Effects of arginine and ornithine on strength, lean body mass and urinary hydroxyproline in adult males. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1989 Mar;29(1):52-6.

6.Cynober, L. “Can Arginine and Ornithine Support Gut Functions?” Gut 35.1 Suppl (1994): S42–S45. Print.

7.M.W.Radomski, R.M.J.Palmer, S.Moncada. Characterization of the L-arginine: nitric oxide pathway in human platelets. Br.J.Pharmacol.(1990),101,325-328.

8.Cardiology Research and Practice.Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 656247, 7 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/656247

9.Effects of arginine and ornithine on strength, lean body mass and urinary hydroxyproline in adult males. (PMID:2770269)

10.Misaizu, Akane et al. “The Combined Effect of Caffeine and Ornithine on the Mood of Healthy Office Workers.” Preventive Nutrition and Food Science 19.4 (2014): 367–372. PMC. Web. 29 Sept. 2017.

11.Luiking, Yvette C., Mariëlle P.K.J. Engelen, and Nicolaas E.P. Deutz. “REGULATION OF NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION IN HEALTH AND DISEASE.” Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care 13.1 (2010): 97–104. PMC. Web. 29 Sept. 2017.

12.Baumgardt, Shelley L. et al. “Chronic Co-Administration of Sepiapterin and L-Citrulline Ameliorates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy and Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Mice.” Circulation. Heart failure 9.1 (2016): e002424. PMC. Web. 29 Sept. 2017.

13.Oral L-Citrulline Supplementation Improves Erection Hardness in Men With Mild Erectile Dysfunction. Cormio, Luigi et al. Urology , Volume 77 , Issue 1 , 119 – 122

14.Yi, Jing et al. “L-Arginine and Alzheimer’s Disease.” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology 2.3 (2009): 211–238. Print.

15.Jahangir, Eiman et al. “The Effect of L-Arginine and Creatine on Vascular Function and Homocysteine Metabolism.” Vascular medicine (London, England) 14.3 (2009): 239–248. PMC. Web. 29 Sept. 2017.

16.Scibona M, Meschini P, Capparelli S, Pecori C, Rossi P, Menchini Fabris GF. L-arginine and male infertility. Minerva Urol Nefrol. 1994 Dec;46(4):251-3.

17.Sandrini G, Franchini S, Lanfranchi S, Granella F, Manzoni GC, Nappi G. Effectiveness of ibuprofen-arginine in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1998;18(3):145-50.

18.Yu Cao, Yonghui Feng, Yanjun Zhang, Xiaotong Zhu and Feng Jin. L-Arginine supplementation inhibits the growth of breast cancer by enhancing innate and adaptive immune responses mediated by suppression of MDSCs in vivo. BMC Cancer201616:343

19.Gullett, Norleena P. et al. “Nutritional Interventions for Cancer-Induced Cachexia.” Current problems in cancer 35.2 (2011): 58–90. PMC. Web. 29 Sept. 2017.

20.Bower RH1, Cerra FB, Bershadsky B, Licari JJ, Hoyt DB, Jensen GL, Van Buren CT, Rothkopf MM, Daly JM, Adelsberg BR. Early enteral administration of a formula (Impact) supplemented with arginine, nucleotides, and fish oil in intensive care unit patients: results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Crit Care Med. 1995 Mar;23(3):436-49.

21.Höche F, Klapperstück T, Wohlrab J. Effects of L-Ornithine on metabolic processes of the urea cycle in human keratinocytes. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2004 Nov-Dec;17(6):283-8.

22.National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID=6262, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/6262 (accessed Sept. 29, 2017).



1.”Zinc sulfate”. Available: https://go.drugbank.com/drugs/DB09322

2.Maxfield, L., Crane, J.S., “Zinc Deficiency”, StatPearls. 2020. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493231/

3.Saper, R.B., Rash, R., “Zinc: An Essential Micronutrient”, American Family Physician, vol.79 issue 9, pp.768 – 772. 2009. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2820120/#

4.Mocchegiani, E., Romeo, J., Malavolta, M., Costarelli, L., Giacconi, R., Diaz, L., Marcos, A., “Zinc: Dietary intake and intake of supplementation on immune function in elderly”, Age, vol.35 issue 3, pp.839 – 860. June 2013. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3636409/

5.Prasad, A.S., “Discovery of Human Zinc Deficiency: Its impact on Human Health and Disease”, Advances in Nutrition, vol.4 issue 2, pp.176 – 190. March 2013. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3649098/

6.Gammoh, N.Z., Rink, L., “Zinc in Infection and Inflammation”, Nutrients, vol.9 issue 6. June 2017. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5490603/

7.Ogawa, Y., Kinoshita, M., Shimada, S., Kawamura, M., “Zinc and skin disorders”, Nutrients, vol.10 issue 2. February 2018. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5852775/

8.Gower-Winter, S.D., Levenson, C.W., “Zinc in the central nervous system: From molecules to behavior”, Biofactors, vol.38 issue 3, pp.186-193. May 2012. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3757551/#:~:text=Zinc%20has%20also%20been%20implicated,these%20and%20other%20neurological%20disorders

9.Roohani, N., Hurrell, R., Kelishadi, R., Schulin, R., “Zinc and its importance for human health: An integrative review”, Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, vol.18 issue 2, pp.144-157. February 2013. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724376/

10.”Zinc sulfate”, Drug Bank. Available: https://go.drugbank.com/drugs/DB09322

11.”Zinc – Fact Sheet for Health Professionals”, National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. Available: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Zinc-HealthProfessional/

12.”Zinc sulfate Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings”, Drugs. Available: https://www.drugs.com/pregnancy/zinc-sulfate.html#:~:text=Zinc%20sulfate%20has%20been%20assigned,age)%20is%20recommended%20during%20pregnancy.

13.Agnew, U.M., Slesinger, T.L., “Zinc Toxicity”, StatPearls. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554548/

Contact Us

We would love to speak with you.
Feel free to reach out via the form and we'll be in touch soon!

IntraVenous Solutions has 4 locations in Nashville, Hendersonville, and Franklin/Cool Springs!

Plus, we provide mobile services to greater Nashville areas, including Hendersonville, Brentwood, Franklin, Belle Meade, Bellevue, Berry Hill, Cool Springs, Donelson, Downtown Nashville, Hermitage, La Vergne, Leipers Fork, Madison, Nolensville, Old Hickory, Spring Hill, Thompson’s Station, and more.